Presentation of Cameroon!
Cameroon, the Central African country on the Atlantic ocean. Its capital is Yaounde. Cameroon is a member of the Commonwealth. From the Gulf of Guinea (Gulf of Biafra), Cameroon stretches northward to Lake Chad, forming a triangle of 475 442 km² of area, linking West Africa and Equatorial Africa.
Cameroon is limited to West by Nigeria, North-East by Chad, to the East by the Central African Republic, to the South by Congo, Gabon and Equatorial Guinea.
From the Gulf of Guinea (Gulf of Biafra), Cameroon stretches northward to Lake Chad, forming a triangle of 475 442 km² of area, linking West Africa and Equatorial Africa.
The climate, the flora and fauna
Cameroon as Africa in miniature has a uniform climate.
- Because it has very low Plains (coastal plain; Plain of Chad) and very high mountains (Mount Cameroon, transport, Tchabal Ndabo, Mambilla).
- Because there near the sea and other regions far away.
- Because it is subject to different (Harmattan, monsoon) winds
- Latitude: from Yaoundé to Maroua temperature increases.
- The sea she softened climate
- Altitude: it's cooler in Yaoundé (760 m) to Douala (13 m). in Bamenda (1 520 m) than not satisfied (1 100 m).
• Rain and winds
January: it's the reign of the Harmattan, dry cold wind from the North. Douala, it's the time of the minimum of rain.
July: the wet winds coming from the Sea (monsoon) back on the Center: it is the wet season.
It should be noted the steady decline in the humidity of the coast from the Atlantic to Lake Chad;
The important role of reliefs: slopes of the South - West of the mountains condense water vapor and have a higher rainfall; mount Cameroon is partly responsible for rainfall very strong Douala (4.294 m).
From North to South, there are a steppe zone, an area of Savannah of altitude and a forest area. The tropical forest is rich in natural or cultivated species (bamboo, palm oil, rubber, mahogany, teak and ebony). The wild fauna is extremely varied and relatively unspoilt, within national parks: monkeys, chimpanzees and gorillas meet on the South; antelopes, lions and elephants, to the North.
- Tropical climate: Adamawa and North
- Alternation of a dry season which shortens to the North
- Not satisfied has 02 equal seasons
- Garoua and Maroua undergo a total drought for five to eight months
- Equatorial climate: Central and South
- High humidity
- Many clouds
- Rains abundant and regular
- 02 dry and two rainy seasons
Dense rainforests extend in the South and on the Cameroon coastal plains and on the central plateau of the country, giving little by little the place to the Savannah. Humid tropical climate of the South promotes the growth of Palm trees, mahogany, teak, ebony, and rubber. These woodlands are home to flora and fauna variety. Cameroon also depends largely on of its forest resources, coveted worldwide.
Principale ressource du pays, l'agriculture occupe 60,6 p. 100 de la population active et représente 19,9 p. 100 du PIB. Les principales cultures d'exportation sont le café, le cacao, le coton, le tabac et la banane. En 2006, les productions annuelles de coton et de cacao atteignaient respectivement 58 000 tonnes et 164 553 tonnes. Les principales cultures vivrières sont le sorgho, l'igname, l'arachide, le manioc, le maïs, le mil et la banane plantain.
L'élevage, activité traditionnelle des Peul, est important dans le massif de l'Adamaoua et dans les savanes du Nord, et l'exportation de bétail sur pied en direction des villes de la côte a bénéficié de la dévaluation du franc CFA. En 2006, le cheptel comptait 6 millions de bovins, 3,8 millions d'ovins et 4,4 millions de caprins. L'élevage de porcs est développé dans le Sud.
La production de bois consiste essentiellement en bois d'acajou, d'ébène et de teck provenant des grandes forêts tropicales du Sud. Les coupes annuelles atteignaient 11,4 millions de m³ en 2006. Jusqu'à une période récente, la pêche traditionnelle concernait surtout les poissons d'eau douce destinés à la consommation locale. Cependant, la pêche en mer s'est développée rapidement, notamment dans la région de Douala. En 2005, les prises annuelles s'élevaient à 142 682 t (dont environ la moitié de poissons d'eau douce).
Relief and Hydrography
Cameroon is divided into several regions. To the south, the coastal plain and inland areas are covered with thick tropical forests, while towards the north they give way to the savannah and then to the Sudano-Sahelian steppe, which ends in marshes bordering from Lake Chad. The dominant feature of its relief is the Adamaoua massif, a mountainous arch that separates the north and south of the country. Its plateaus, at an average elevation of 1,370 m, dominate the Benue plains, to the north and west, along the border with Nigeria. More upright to the north and west, where it rises up to 2,460 m, the Adamaoua extends to the southwest by high mountains of volcanic origin where Mount Cameroon rises to 4,095 m. This volcano is still active. The toxic gas emanations of Lake Nyos, formed in one of the craters, had more than a thousand victims in 1986, and the depth of gas concentration now seems to be renewed. Adamawa also determines the hydrographic orientation of Cameroon. The Logone flows north from the central plateau to the Chad Basin. The Bénoué also takes its source and connects the east and the north of the plateau to the vast fluvial network of Niger to the west (Nigeria). To the south, the massif gives birth to many national coastal rivers, including Sanaga and Nyong, which flow into the Atlantic. Its sources also feed the basin of the Congo River (Sangha), to the east.
Cameroon has vast resources, both agricultural and mining and oil. It experienced significant growth between 1977 and 1985 (more than 10 per cent per year) through the development of its oil resources and agricultural exports. After a period of deep and lasting economic crisis due to the deterioration of the terms of trade (down 44% between 1986 and 1988) and competition with its Nigerian neighbor, along with an increase in public spending, the Since 1988, the country has carried out an adjustment policy under the auspices of the International Monetary Fund (IMF). The devaluation of the CFA franc in 1994 led to a revival of exports and a recovery of the economy.
Cameroon benefits from the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) initiative, which should lead to debt relief for the fight against poverty (in 2001, 40.2 percent of the population was living in poverty). below the poverty line). Even if it remains fragile, the Cameroonian economy has returned to growth: for the period 2006, the growth rate of GDP amounts to 3.80 p. In 2006, GDP was estimated at $ 18.32 billion. Per capita GDP amounted to $ 1,008.20.
Natural resources, demographics
In addition to important forest resources, Cameroon has very profitable deposits of bauxite in the North of the country. Reserves of natural gas and oil deposits are exploited in high seas off the coast of Douala. Gold is extracted in small quantities, as well as the tin ore and limestone. The hydrographic network has great hydroelectric potential used in metallugiques (Edéa plant) facilities.
In 2008, the population of Cameroon is estimated at 18.5 million people. The annual growth rate of the population reached 2.22 per 100. In 2008, the total fertility rate remains high (4.4 children per woman) while the infant mortality rate is 65 per 1,000 and the life expectancy at birth of 53 years.
Population density (39 inhabitants/km² on average) varies by region. She is more concentrated in the large cities of the South, as well as in the mountains of the West and the savannahs of northern area.
The latter is populated by the Fulani, semi-nomadic shepherds. The Kirdis, farmers, also live in the North, in the mountains of the Kapsiki. The South is mainly inhabited by Bantu speaking peoples: the most important community is that of the Bamileke, which are dynamic traders. The forests of the South are one of the last refuges for the Pygmies.
About 53% In 2005, the number of Cameroonians living in the city was increasing. However, the rural exodus continued to accelerate, particularly towards Yaoundé (435,900 inhabitants in 1981, 1,616,000 in 2003), the capital and main commercial center. Douala is the most important port on the Gulf of Biafra (637,000 inhabitants in 1981, 1,494,700 in 2001). The other cities are N'kongsamba (130,000 inhabitants), Maroua (140,000 inhabitants), Bafoussam (120,000 inhabitants) and Foumban (50,100 inhabitants).
Languages and religions
About a quarter of the population is animist. Muslims (22 per cent) live mainly in the North, while Christians (33 per cent Catholics, 17 per cent Protestants) live in the South. French and English are the official languages, with Francophones (78% of the total population) outnumbering Anglophones (22%). Sudanese languages are spoken in the North, Bantu languages in the South (see Africa, languages of).
Institutions and political life
Since 1990 and the introduction of multiparty politics, Cameroon has been experiencing a difficult democratization of the regime. Political life continues to be dominated by the former single party founded by President Ahmadou Ahidjo in 1966, the Democratic Rally of the Cameroonian People (CPDM), whose leader Paul Biya has chaired the country since 1982. The main opposition parties are the English-speaking Social Democratic Front (SDF) and the Cameroon Democratic Union (UDC).
The Cameroonian political system is governed by the 1972 Constitution, revised in 1996. The President of the Republic is the Head of State and the Commander of the Armed Forces. He is elected by universal suffrage for a term of seven years. The prime minister is appointed by the president, as are his ministers. The president also appoints the governors of the country's 10 provinces. Legislative power is vested in a unicameral National Assembly of 180 members, elected by direct universal suffrage for a five-year term.
The service sector employs 23.1 percent of And 46.9 percent of the labor force. 100 of GDP. Cameroon belongs to the franc zone. Its currency is the CFA franc, divided into 100 centimes. It is issued by the Bank of Central African States (BEAC), based in Yaoundé. In January 1994, the CFA franc was devalued by 50%. 100 to the French franc.
In 2006, the country's external debt is 17.50 percent. 100 of the GNP. Cameroon's main economic partners are France, Italy, Germany, the Netherlands and the United States.
Cameroon has some 50 000 km of roads, of which 10 Only 100 are asphalted. Most are impassable during the rainy season. The country also has a railway network of 1,016 km. Port traffic is mainly carried out in Douala, which doubles as a trading port for neighboring countries without maritime outlets. The second port, Kribi, will soon welcome a pipeline for flowing oil exploited in southern Chad, but there is strong opposition to its passage into Cameroonian territory on the part of affected populations. Further north, on the Benue, the port of Garoua is open three months a year to the fluvial trade with Nigeria. Air Cameroun operates domestic and international lines. The main airport is located in Douala. The State-controlled radio and television organization is based in Yaoundé.
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